School Kids

SHAPE Assessments: Enhancing School Mental Health Screening

Team PsyPack
Team PsyPack
Mon Mar 25 2024

What is School Mental Health Screening?

School mental health screening employs systematic tools or processes to evaluate students’ strengths and needs comprehensively. This assessment isn’t limited to students showing signs of mental health issues; it encompasses all students. It may cover the entire student body or target specific groups, like certain grades.

Using a multi-tiered approach, students are better positioned to develop essential social, emotional, and behavioral skills. Moreover, this approach facilitates early intervention, addressing mental health needs proactively to prevent escalation.

Screening measures may also inquire about students’ well-being and positive mental health indicators.

  • Life satisfaction
  • School belonging
  • Social determinants of mental health
  • Adverse early life experiences
  • Food and housing security
  • Socioeconomic status

Key Considerations for Selecting a Screening Tool

Selecting the appropriate screening tool is paramount in ensuring effective school mental health assessment. Consider the following key factors when evaluating potential options:

  • Is it reliable, valid, and evidence-based?
  • Is it available for free or at a reasonable cost?
  • What is the time required for administering and scoring?
  • Does it provide access to training and technical support for staff?
  • Does it cover the desired aspects of mental health, such as risks, positive well-being, and appropriate age ranges?

Considering Additional Indicators of Students’ Mental Health

In the process of selecting a screening tool, it’s valuable to broaden the scope beyond solely mental health symptoms. This entails incorporating measures that encompass social determinants of health, as well as indicators of academic success, well-being, and distress. Such an inclusive approach aids in identifying students in need of additional support. Examples to consider include:

  • Academic performance, such as grades
  • Attendance records
  • Incidences of office discipline referrals
  • Substance use engagement
  • Indicators of socioeconomic status, like parents’ education level or eligibility for free/reduced lunch
  • Social determinants of mental health, such as food or housing insecurity

Enhance Sensitivity and Cultural Responsiveness

Utilize validated, culturally responsive screening measures that align with valued outcomes and are developmentally appropriate for the student population. Ensure that these measures are available in the students’ first language, catering to both students and their families.

Additionally, prioritize tools and administration methods sensitive to students who have experienced trauma. This involves creating a safe environment for screening and transparent communication about the purpose and process of the assessment.

The screening team should actively seek feedback from youth, families, and other stakeholders to ensure that the screening tools are culturally responsive, user-friendly, and relevant across diverse identities and backgrounds.

Utilizing Technology for Efficient Implementation

In the digital age, technology plays a crucial role in streamlining school mental health programs. Incorporating advanced tools simplifies assessment administration, scoring, report generation, and record-keeping, thereby saving time and ensuring comprehensive data collection.

Technology, such as automated platforms, enables seamless implementation of standardized assessments. PsyPack for schools, for instance, offers a pre-loaded library of standardized assessments and automated scoring features. Its user-friendly interface further enhances efficiency in student well-being assessment.

In summary, leveraging technology for efficient implementation enhances the effectiveness of school mental health programs. Platforms like PsyPack contribute significantly to streamlining assessment processes, ultimately benefiting students and educators alike.

Introducing the SHAPE System Screening and Assessment Library

The SHAPE System offers a comprehensive Screening and Assessment Library, housing a curated collection of free or low-cost screening tools pertinent to school mental health. These assessments cover academic, school climate, and social, emotional, and behavioral domains, carefully selected based on factors like purpose, student age, language accessibility, and source of reporting.

Developed through rigorous review processes by the National Center for School Mental Health, this library serves as a valuable resource for educators and mental health professionals alike. Below, you’ll find a detailed list of assessments available in the SHAPE System Screening and Assessment Library.

Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)

Developer(s): J. Saunders & O. Aasland (1993)
The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is a measure designed to screen for excessive drinking and alcohol use disorders among 16 years old or older through adulthood.

Focus Area: Substance Use

Subscales: Not Available
Student, 10 items (for ages 14-18)
Authoritative School Climate Survey (ASCS)

Developers: D. Cornell (2017)
The Authoritative School Climate Survey (ASCS) is derived from the School Climate Bullying Survey (SCBS) with a greater focus on authoritative school climate theory. This theory is based on the idea that both structure (e.g. strict and fair rule enforcement) and support (e.g. feelings of acceptance from school staff) are needed in a positive school climate. The ASCS includes student, caregiver, and educator versions, which can be administered on paper or online. To date, the published findings about this survey are limited only to the secondary school version. This survey may also be referred to as the Virginia Secondary School Climate Survey.

Focus Area: School Climate

Subscales: Disciplinary Structure, Academic Expectations, Student Support, Student Engagement, Prevalence of Teasing and Bullying
Student, Elementary School Survey, 26 items (for grades 3-5)

Student, Secondary School Survey, 76 items (for grades 6-12)

Caregiver, 66 items (all grades)

Educator, 66 items (for grades 6-12)
Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC)

Developers: B. Rimland, S. Edelson
The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC, revised) allows caregivers and educators to rate behaviors and symptoms evidenced by youth diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). In contrast to other measures that diagnose ASD, the ATEC was designed to measure effectiveness of treatment over time and allow for within individual progress monitoring.

Focus Area: Autism

Subscales: Speech/Language/Communication, Sociability, Sensory/Cognitive Awareness, Health/Physical/Behavior
Caregiver, 77 items (for ages 2+)

Educator, 77 items (for ages 2+)
Brief Impairment Scale (BIS)

Developer(s): H. Bird, G. Canino, M. Davies, R. Ramírez, L. Chávez, C. Duarte, & S. Shen (2005)
The Brief Impairment Scale (BIS) is a global measure of impairment designed to be completed by caregivers that assesses three domains of functioning: interpersonal relations, school/work functioning, and self-care/self-fulfillment.

Focus Area: Academic, Social Skills

Subscales: Interpersonal relations, School/work functioning, Self-care/self-fulfillment
Caregiver, 23 items (for ages 4-17)
CAGE Screen

Developer: J. Ewing
The CAGE Screen is a screening tool for identifying potentially problematic alcohol use among adolescents over age 16 and adults. It is a quick and easy to remember assessment often used in primary care or other general settings. CAGE is a mnemonic acronym of the first letter of key words in the four screening questions. The CAGE has also been adapted to include assessment of alcohol AND drug use (CAGE-AID).

Focus Area: Substance Use

Subscales: Not Available
Student, 4 items (for ages 16+)

Clinician, 4 items (for ages 16+)
Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale
for Children (CES-DC)

Developers: M. Faulstich, M. Carey, L. Ruggiero, P. Enyart, & F. Gresham
The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) is a student self-report measure to assess for depressive symptoms in children, adolescents, and young adults ages 6-23. The CES-DC was modified from the CES-D, an adult depression inventory, which was developed from other depression scales covering six major symptom areas, including depressed mood, feelings of guilt/worthlessness, a sense of helplessness/hopelessness, psychomotor retardation, loss of appetite, and sleep disturbance.

Focus Area: Depression/Mood

Subscales: N/A
Student, 20 items (for ages 6-23)
Child and Youth Resilience Measure

Developer(s): M. Ungar & L. Liebenberg (2016)
The CYRM is a screening tool designed to capture children’s individual, relational, communal, and cultural resources that bolster individuals’ resilience.

Focus Area: Resilience

Subscales: Individual (Personal Skills, Peer Support, Social Skills), Relationship with Primary Caregiver (Physical Caregiving, Psychological Caregiving), Context (Spiritual, Education, Cultural)
Child, 12 and 26 items (for ages 5-9)

Youth, 12 and 28 items (for ages 10-23)
Child Mania Rating Scale, Parent (CMRS-P)

Developers: M. Pavuluri, D. Henry, B. Devineni, J. Carbray, & B. Birmaher
The Child Mania Rating Scale, Parent (CMRS-P) assesses symptoms that reflect the characteristics of a manic episode according to DSM-IV criteria, including symptoms consistent with criterion A (levels of elation/irritability), B (levels of self-esteem/grandiosity), and C (impairment to functioning). An educator/teacher-rated (CMRS-T) assessment and a brief version (10 item; Brief CMRS-P) are also available. Items for the measures were developed specifically for youth and adolescents rather than through adaptation of an existing adult-oriented rating scale.

Focus Area: Depression/Mood

Subscales: N/A
Brief CMRS-P, Caregiver, 10 items (for ages 5-17)

CMRS-P, Caregiver, 21 items (for ages 5-17)

CMRS-T, Educator, 21 items (for ages 5-17)
Child Trauma Screen (CTS)

Developer(s): Jason Lang, PhD & Christian Connell, PhD
The CTS is a free 10-item screening measure of trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms for children age 6-17 (age 3-6 is in development) intended for use by school staff or staff in any other child-serving setting, including behavioral health, pediatrics, child welfare, juvenile justice, and other programs. The CTS has been evaluated in three psychometric studies, including two of children in behavioral health clinics (2017, 2018) and one in a pediatric primary care clinic (2021). The CTS can be administered as an interview or self-report and both child- and caregiver report versions are available.

Focus Area: Trauma

Subscales: Exposure, Reactions
Student, Elementary School Survey, 10 items (for ages 6-17)

Caregiver, 10 items (for ages 6-17)
Children’s Hope Scale

Developer(s): C. Snyder, B. Hoza, W. Pelham, J. Rapoff, L. Ware, M. Danovsky et al., (1997)
The Children’s Hope Scale is a measure designed to assess hope within youth ages 8-16.

Focus Area: Life Satisfaction/Quality/Hope

Subscales: Agency, Pathways
Children’s Hope Scale, Student, 6 items (for ages 8-16).
Conditions for Learning (CFL)

Developer: American Institutes for Research (AIR)
The Conditions for Learning (CFL) survey assesses conditions for safe and supportive learning environments in four areas. The “safe and respectful school climate” subscale asesseses feelings of physical and emotional safety. The “challenge” subscale assesses the degree to which teachers encourage students to work hard, do their best, and connect material learned in school to life outside of school. The “student support” subscale assesses to what extent students feel connected to teachers and their belief in how teachers treat students. The “peer social and emotional learning” subscale measures the perception of peers’ ability to cope with challenges and use problem solving. Three versions of the CFL are available for student self-report in grades 2-12.

Focus Area: Academic, School Climate

Subscales: Peer social emotional learning, Student support, Challenge (high expectations/academic rigor), Safe and respectful school climate
Student, 23 items (for grades 2-4)

Student, 53 items (for grades 5-8)

Student, 56 items (for grades 9-12)

Developers: J. Knight, L. Shrier, T. Bravender, M. Farrell, J. Vanderbilt, & H. Shaffer
The CRAFFT 2.1 is a behavioral health screening tool that measures high-risk alcohol and other drug use behaviors for adolescents. The CRAFFT 2.1 enhances sensitivity of the original CRAFFT. CRAFFT is a mnemonic acronym of the first letters of key words in the six screening questions. When administering the clinician interview version, the questions should be asked exactly as written.

Focus Area: Substance Use

Subscales: N/A
Student, 9 items (for ages 12-18)

Clinician, 9 items (for ages 12-18)
Delaware School Climate Survey

Developers: G. Bear, C. Gaskins, J. Blank, & F. Chen
The Delaware School Climate Survey assesses school clim ate across five scales that align with goals commonly targeted in the School-wide Positive Behavior and Intervention Supports (SWPBIS) and the Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) approaches. Each version (student, caregiver, educator) can be used independently, however, they can also be used in combination, allowing school teams to compare and contrast different perspectives. Within each version, subscales can also be administered together or separately if a school has a more narrowly defined school climate focus.

Focus Area: School Climate, Social/Emotional/Behavioral

Subscales: Delaware school climate scale (DSCS), Delaware bullying victimization scale (DBVS), Delaware student engagement scale (DSES), Delaware positive, punitive, and social emotional learning techniques scale (DTS), Delaware social and emotional competencies scale (DSECS)
Student, 80 items (for grades 3-5)

Student, 97 items (for grades 6-12)

Caregiver, 58 items (for grade K-12)

Educator, 55 items (for grades K-12)
Depression Self Rating Scale for Children (DSRS-C)

Developer(s): P. Birleson, I. Hudson, D, Gray Buchanan, & S. Wolff (1987)
The Depression Self Rating Scale for Children (DSRSC) is a measure designed to assess depression symptoms in children ages 8 to 14 within the past week.

Focus Area: Depression, Mood

Subscales: Not Available
Student, 18 items (for ages 8-14)
ED School Climate Survey (EDSCLS)

Developer: U.S. Department of Education
The ED School Climate Survey (EDSCLS) is a set of measurement tools on a web-based platform designed to assess three elements of school climate: engagement, safety, and the environment. Versions are available for students, parents, and instructional and non-instructional educators. The surveys are available on paper, but the responses must be entered electronically online. The online system produces reports for schools, districts, and states based on individual item and scale score responses. Universal data collection from all possible respondents is recommended.

Focus Area: Academic, Global Functioning

Subscales: Engagement (Cultural and linguistic competence, Relationships, School participation), Safety (Emotional safety, Physical safety, Bullying/cyberbullying, Substance abuse, Emergency Readiness), Environment (Physical environment, Instructional environment, Physical health, Mental health, Discipline)
Student, 73 items (for grades 5-12)

Caregiver, 43 items (for grades 5-12)

Educator, 82 items (for grades 5-12)

Educator (non-instructional), 103 items (for grades 5-12)
Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS)

Developers: E. Foa, K. Johnson, N. Feeny, & K. Treadwell
Foa’s Child PTSD Symptom Scale for DSM-5 (CPSS-5) was developed to screen and assess the severity of DSM-5 post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents exposed to trauma. There is a self-report (CPSS-SR-5) version, which includes an optional trauma screen to identify frightening or stressful events. A clinician semi-structured interview (CPSS-I-5) is also available to use in a more diagnostic context. The measure is appropriate for use in schools, community, or research settings.

Focus Area: Trauma

Subscales: Total symptom severity, Total severity-of-impairment
CPSS-SR-5, Student, 29 items (for ages 8-18)

CPSS-I-5, Clinician, 32 items (for ages 8-18)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder – 7 (GAD-7)

Developers: R. Spitzer, K. Kroenke, J. Williams, & B. Lowe
The Generalized Anxiety Disorder – 7 (GAD-7) screening tool measures symptoms of anxiety in older adolescents and adults. The Severity Measure for Generalized Anxiety Disorder—Chid Age 11-17 complements the GAD-7 in assessing anxiety in youth and adolescents. These measures improve recognition of anxiety and can inform diagnosis and treatment.

Focus Area: Anxiety, Trauma

Subscales: Not Available
Student, 10 items (for ages 11-17)

GAD-7, Student, 8 items (for ages 18+)
Identification with School Questionnaire (ISQ)

Developer: K. Voelkl
The Identification with School Questionnaire (ISQ) assesses a student’s emotional engagement with school using two subscales. The “Valuing” subscale assesses how important or useful a student regards learning, to what degree a student agree that school is an important institution in society, and how much school is part of the student’s self-definition. The “Belongingness” subscale assesses the degree to which a student feels that he or she is a significant member of the school community.

Focus Area: Academic

Subscales: Belongingness with school, Valuing of school
Student, 16 items (for grades 8-12)
Parent-Young Mania Rating Scale (P-YMRS)

Developers: B. Gracious, E. Youngstrom, R. Findling, & J. Calabrese
The Parent-Young Mania Rating Scale (P-YMRS) assesses the severity of manic symptoms in children and adolescents with Bipolar Disorder, Type I and II, or those at risk of mania. The PYMRS was adapted from the clinician administered YMRS, developed as an observational measure for use with adult inpatients. An educator/teacher version (T-YMRS) was also adapted for use with students. As the measure does not assess concomitant depressive symptoms, a depressive rating scale should be administered along with the P-YMRS.

Focus Area: Depression/Mood

Subscales: Not Available
P-YMRS, Caregiver, 11 items (for ages 5-17)

T-YMRS, Educator, 10 items (for ages 5-17)

YMRS, Clinician, 11 items (for ages 18+)
Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)

Developers: K. Kroenke, R. Spitzer, & J. Williams
The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was initially designed to facilitate the recognition and diagnosis of depressive disorders in primary care. The PHQ-9 was modified for youth and adolescents (Severity Measures for Depression – Child Age 11-17) and to better assess for suicide risk and dysthymia in adolescents (PHQ-9-A).

Focus Area: Depression/Mood

Subscales: Major depressive disorder, Dysthymia, Suicide risk screening
Student, 9 items (for ages 11-17)

PHQ-9-A, Student, 13 items (for ages 13-17)

PHQ-9, Student, 10 items (for ages 18+)
Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC)

Youth Pediatric Symptom Checklist

Developers: M. Jellinek, J. Murphy, J. Robinson, A. Feins, S. Lamb, & T. Fenton
The Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) is a screening tool intended to identify a wide range of psychosocial concerns. Full (35 item) and abbreviated (17 items) versions were developed for youth (Y-PSC) and caregiver (PSC) respondents. A version for caregivers is also available in pictorials (PPSC; picture options). Originally utilized in primary care, the PSC’s application has also been expanded to school and community health and behavioral health settings.

Focus Area: Anxiety, Depression/Mood, Disruptive Behavior, Global Functioning, Hyperactivity, Inattention

Subscales: Psychosocial impairment (Attentional impairment, Internalizing symptom impairment, Externalizing symptom impairment)
Y-PSC-17, Student, 17 items (for ages 11-18)

Y-PSC, Student, 35 items (for ages 11-18)

PSC, Caregiver, 35 items (for ages 3-16)

PPSC, Caregiver, 35 items (for ages 3-16)

Caregiver,17 items (for ages 6-16)
Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children (PSWQ-C)

Developers: B. Chorpita, S. Tracey, T. Brown, T. Collica, D. Barlow
The Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children (PSWQ-C) assesses generalized worry in students ages 7-17 and items are written on a second grade reading level. High scores on the PSWQ-C are more indicative of generalized anxiety than specific anxiety disorders. The measure was adapted from the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) for adults. The PSWQ was also adapted to assess changes in symptoms over the past week, which can be used for progress monitoring (PSWQ-PW).

Focus Area: Anxiety

Subscales: Not Available
PSWQ-C, Student, 14 items (for ages 7-17)

PSWQ-PW, Student, 15 items (for ages 18+)

PSWQ, Student, 16 items (for ages 18+)
Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS)

Developers: B. Chorpita, C. Ebesutani, & S. Spence
The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) assesses DSM-defined anxiety and depression for students in grades 3-12. The RCADS anxiety items were derived from the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS). There is also a shortened version (RCADS-25) available; both short and long assessments have a parent/caregiver report version (RCADS-P; RCADS-P-25). The measure has been validated in community, clinical, and school-based samples and shows utility in delineating anxiety and depressive disorders.

Focus Area: Anxiety, Depression/Mood

Subscales: Separation anxiety, Generalized anxiety, Panic, Social phobia
RCADS-25, Student, 25 items (for grades 3-12)

RCADS, Student, 47 items (for grades 3-12)

RCADS-P-25, Caregiver, 25 items (for grades 3-12)

RCADS-P, Caregiver, 47 items (for grades 3-12)
School Academic Optimism Scale (SAOS)

Developer: W. Hoy
The School Academic Optimism Scale (SAOS) assesses three characteristics thought to complement each other to provide an overall sense of academic optimism: 1) collective efficacy (cognitive), faculty trust in students and parents (affective), and academic emphasis (behavioral). School staff rate school performance (SAOS) and teacher performance at the elementary (TAOSE) and secondary school levels (TAOS-S).

Focus Area: Academic, School Climate

Subscales: Academic optimism index (Collective sense of self-efficacy, Faculty trust in student and parents, Academic emphasis)
SAOS, Educator, 30 items (for grades K-12)

TAOS-E, Educator, 11 items (for grades K-5)

TAOS-S, Educator, 9 items (for grades 6-12)
School Burnout Inventory (SBI)

Developers: K. Salmela-Aro, N. Kiuru, E. Leskinen, & J. Nurmi
The School Burnout Inventory (SBI) assesses three factors associated with school-related stress among upper middle school and high school students, including Exhaustion at school, Cynicism toward the meaning of school, and Sense of inadequacy at school. Exhaustion is related to feelings of strain and chronic fatigue resulting from overtaxing schoolwork; cynicism is related to having a detached attitude toward school and school-work; sense of inadequacy is related to diminished feelings of competence, success, achievement, and efficacy associated with school and schoolwork. The measure was adapted from the Bergen Burnout Indicator-15 (BBI-15), which was developed to assess burnout in the work environment. A Short School Burnout Inventory (SSBI) can also be used.

Focus Area: Academic

Subscales: Exhaustion at school, Cynicism toward the meaning of school, Sense of inadequacy at school
SSBI, Student, 3 items (for grades 8-12)

SBI, Student, 9 items (for grades 8-12)
School Climate Measure (SCM)

Developers: K. Zullig, R. Collins, N. Ghani, A. Hunter, J. Patton, E. Huebner, J. Zhang
The School Climate Measure (SCM) asseses multiple dimensions of organizational school climate based on perceptions of middle and high school students. The SCM was constructed by combining and evaluating five well-regarded school climate measures, starting with 184-items, to produce a more brief, refined, and psychometrically sound battery of school climate. Two versions have been created to support an 8-domain and 10-domain measurement approach to school climate.

Focus Area: Academic, School Climate, Social Skills

Subscales: Positive student-teacher relationships, School connectedness, Academic support, Order and discipline, Physical environment, Social environment, Perceived exclusion/privilege, Opportunities for positive student engagement, Academic satisfaction, Parental involvement
8-domain, Student, 39 items (for ages 12-18)

10-domain, Student, 50 items (for ages 12-18)
Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders

Developer(s): B. Birmaher, S. Khetarpal, M. Cully, D. Brent, & S. McKenzie (1995)
The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED) assesses symptoms related to overall anxiety and specific DSM anxiety disorder criteria. Versions are available for students ages 8 to 18 (SCARED-C), or older, SCAARED) and caregiver report (SCARED-P). The measure has been validated in outpatient mental health, pediatric, community, and school-based samples and shows utility in delineating anxiety disorders from non-anxiety disorders.

Focus Area: Anxiety

Subscales: Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder or significant somatic symptoms, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Separation Anxiety, Social Anxiety Disorder, Significant School Avoidance
SCARED-C, Student, 41 items (for ages 8-18)

SCAARED, Adult, 41 items (for ages 18+)

SCARED-P, Caregiver, 41 items (for ages 8-18)
Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS)

Developer: S. Spence
The Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) assesses the severity of anxiety symptoms, broadly and across six dimensions of anxiety, as proposed by the DSM-IV. School-aged versions are available for caregivers/parents (e.g., ages 7-9, ages 10-13) and students (e.g., ages 8-11, ages 12-15). The Preschool Anxiety Scale (PAS) is available for children ages 3 through 6 years old (Parent PAS, Teacher PAS). The scale can be used to evaluate the impact of therapy on anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents.

Focus Area: Anxiety, Trauma

Subscales: Obsessive-compulsive, Social phobia/anxiety, Panic disorder/agoraphobia, Separation anxiety, Physical injury fears, Generalized anxiety
Child SCAS, Student, 47 items (for ages 8-15)

Parent PAS, Caregiver, 35 items (for ages 3-6)

Parent SCAS, Caregiver, 42 items (for ages 7-13)

Teacher PAS, Educator, 22 items (for ages 3-6)
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)

Developer: R. Goodman
The Strengths and Difficulities Questionnaire (SDQ) assesses positive and negative psychological attributes across emotional, behavioral, and social dimensions. Educator/teacher and caregiver/parent versions (2-17 year olds), as well as, student/self-report (11 years old and up) and informant versions (18+ years old) are available. All versions are offered with an optional impact supplement, to assess functional impairment, and a follow-up version, to assess change over time. The SDQ provides the most utility when information is combined from multiple informants and with use of the impact score.

Focus Area: Anxiety, Depression/Mood, Disruptive Behavior, Global Functioning, Hyperactivity, Social Skills
Student, 25 items (for ages 11-17, 18+)

Caregiver, 25 items (for ages 2-4, 4-10, 11-17)

Educator, 25 items (for ages 2-4, 4-10. 11-17)

Informant, 25 items (for ages 18+)

Impact, Student, 33 items (for ages 11-17, 18+)

Impact, Caregiver, 33 items (for ages 2-4, 4-10, 11-17 )

Impact, Educator, 31 items (for ages 2-4, 4-10, 11-17, 18+)

Follow-up, Student, 34 items (for ages 11-17, 18+)

Follow-up, Caregiver, 34 items (for ages 2-4, 4-10, 11-17)

Follow-up, Educator, 32 items (for ages 2-4, 4-10. 11-17)

Follow-up, Informant, 34 items (for ages 18+)
Student Engagement Instrument (SEI)

Developers: J. Appleton, S. Christenson, D. Kim, & A. Reschly
The Student Engagement Instrument (SEI) assesses a student’s level of engagement at school and with learning. Specifically, the SEI measures “higher-inference” types of student engagement, including cognitive and affective (psychological) engagement. These scales have been validated for use in upper elementary school (SEI-E, for grades 3 to 5) and for secondary school (SEI, for grades 6 to 12).

Focus Area: Academic

Subscales: SEI Total, Affective (psychological) engagement (Teacher-student relationships, Peer support for learning, Family support for learning), Cognitive engagement (Control and relevance of school work, Future goals and aspirations, Intrinsic motivation), Additional domains: Behavioral engagement, Disaffection
SEI-E, Student, 33 items (for grades 3-5)

SEI, Student, 35 items (for grades 6-12)
Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS)

Developer: T. Drummond
The Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS-E7) helps identify externalizing behaviors among school-aged students. It was originally developed to detect risk for anti-social behavior patterns. The SRSS-I5 and the SRSS-I6 also assess internalizing risk behaviors in elementary and middle/high school students, respectively. The SRSS-I versions, though valid in the target population, do not show the same strength in validity as the SRSS-E7. The SRSS’ utility is enhanced when grade level, classroom, school, or district data are aggregated in order to identify the number of students at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems.

Focus Area: Academic, Anxiety, Depression/Mood, Disruptive Behavior, Social Skills

Subscales: Not Available
SRSS-E7, Educator, 7 items (for grades K-12)

SRSS-I5, Educator, 5 items (for grades K-5)

SRSS-I6, Educator, 6 items (for grades 6-12)
Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS)

Developer: E. S. Huebner
The Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS) evaluates self-reported life satisfaction for students ages 8-18. The scale was later adapted to assess positive indicators of psychological well-being across five dimensions (MSLSS). Versions are available for both elementary (MSLSS [E]) and middle/high school (MSLSS [M/H]) students. The MSLSS-Adolescent (MSLSS-A) version is similar to the MSLSS, except it examines same-sex and opposite-sex friendships. A brief version (BMSLSS) consisting of six items assesses each of the five domains, as well as a global indicator item.

Focus Area: Life Satisfaction/Quality, Social Skills

Subscales: Family, Friends, School, Living environment, Self, Opposite-sex friends, Same-sex friends
SLSS, Student, 7 items (for ages 8-18)

BMSLSS, Student, 6 items (for grades 3-12)

MSLSS (E), Student, 40 items (for grades 3-5)

MSLSS (M/H), Student, 40 items (for grades 6-12)

MSLSS-A, Student, 53 items (for grades 9-12)
Traumatic Events Screening/Diagnostic Inventory (TESI)

Developers: C. Ghosh-Ippen, Dartmouth Child Trauma Research Group, National Center for PTSD
The Traumatic Events Screening/Diagnostic Inventory (TESI) assesses lifetime exposure to a variety of potentially traumatic events (e.g., injuries, domestic or community violence, natural disasters, sexual abuse, neglect). The TESI includes follow-up questions about the student’s emotional reaction following the event to assess DSM PTSD criterion A1/A2, as well as other aspects of the trauma, including severity and consequences. The TESI-C for children is administered as a clinician semi-structured interview or as a student/child (TESI-C/TESI-SRR) or caregiver/parent (TESI-P/TESI-PRR) questionnaire. The TESI is written on a fifth grade reading level.

Focus Area: Trauma

Subscales: Not Available
TESI-SRR, Student, 24-140 items (for ages 11-18)

TESI, Student, 18 items, (for aged 18+)

TESI-PRR-B, Caregiver, 24 items (for ages 0-6)

TESI-PRR-L, Caregiver, 24-113 items (for ages 0-6)

TESI-C, Clinician, 19-146 items (for ages 4-18)

TESI-P, Clinician, 19 items (for ages 4-8)
Two Item Conjoint Screen (TICS)

Developers: R. Brown, T. Leonard, L. Saunders, & O. Papasouliotis
The Two Item Conjoint Screen (TICS) is a brief measure designed to detect current problems with alcohol and/or drug use. It is not meant to identify history of substance use or assess risk of future use.

Focus Area: Substance Use

Subscales: Not Available
Student, 2 items (for ages 18+)
Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scale – Teacher

Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scale – Parent

Developers: M. Wolraich, I. Feurer, J. Hannah, A. Baumgaertel, & T. Pinnock
The Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scale assesses the presence of DSM-5 criteria for ADHD Inattentive, Hyperactive/Impulsive, and Combined subtypes. The initial assessment includes screening for common behavioral and emotional comorbidities of ADHD. A follow-up assessment is available for progress monitoring symptoms and tracking medication side effects.

Focus Area: Academic, Anxiety, Depression/Mood, Disruptive Behavior, Hyperactivity, Inattention, Social Skills

Subscales: Inattentive subtype, Hyperactive/Impulsive subtype, Combined inattention/hyperactivity, Oppositional-defiant, Conduct, Anxiety/Depression, Performance
Initial, Caregiver, 55 items (for ages 6-12)

Follow-up, Caregiver, 26 items (for ages 6-12)

Initial, Educator, 43 items (for ages 6-12)

Follow-up, Educator, 26 items (for ages 6-12)

In conclusion, prioritizing the mental health and well-being of students is paramount for fostering a supportive and thriving educational environment. School mental health screening serves as a proactive tool in identifying and addressing the diverse needs of students, ensuring that every individual receives the necessary support to succeed academically, socially, and emotionally.

By embracing the principles of school mental health screening and utilizing innovative tools like PsyPack, we can create inclusive and nurturing school environments where every student has the opportunity to thrive. Together, let’s continue to prioritize the mental health and well-being of our students, laying the foundation for their success and happiness both inside and outside the classroom.