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Sleep Hygiene Index

Sleep Hygiene Index

What is SHI

The Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI) is a 13-item self-administered index intended to assess the presence of behaviors thought to comprise sleep hygiene. Participants are asked to indicate how frequently they engage in specific behaviors (always, frequently, sometimes, rarely, never). Items constructing the Sleep Hygiene Index are derived from the diagnostic criteria for inadequate sleep hygiene in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (American Sleep Disorders Association, 1990). Item scores were summed providing a global assessment of sleep hygiene. Higher scores are indicative of more maladaptive sleep hygiene status.

SHI Printable PDF

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SHI Scoring and Interpretation

The SHI is a 13-item self-administered Likert scale index that assesses behavioural patterns associated with sleep hygiene practices. Responses to each item are based on the frequency with which the person engages in the behaviour from 1 (never) to 5 (always). Items are summed to provide a global assessment of sleep hygiene with scores ranging from 13–65. Higher global scores are indicative of more maladaptive sleep hygiene practices.

Higher scores are indicative of more maladaptive sleep hygiene status.

SHI Score and Interpretation

Table 4
SHI ScoreInterpretation

below 26

good sleep hygiene


average sleep hygiene

35 and above

poor sleep hygiene

PsyPack can automatically score the SHI assessment and prepare corresponding tables and graphs.

SHI sample result

Further, PsyPack automatically plots a graph to help you easily track progress over time.

SHI track progress

Sample Report of SHI



What does SHI measure

The purpose of the evaluation is to:

  • provide a global assessment of sleep hygiene.



Type of outcome tool


Assessment modes


Age and eligibility


Estimated time

Less than 5 minutes


Since the questionnaire relies on client self-report, all responses should be verified by the clinician, and a definitive diagnosis is made on clinical grounds taking into account how well the client understood the questionnaire, as well as other relevant information from the client.

Sleep hygiene may be described as practicing behaviors that facilitate sleep and avoiding behaviors that interfere with sleep. Inadequate sleep hygiene is defined in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders as a “sleep disorder due to the performance of daily living activities that are inconsistent with the maintenance of good quality sleep and full daytime alertness”.

  • Sleep hygiene behaviors are relatively stable over time for a nonclinical population.
  • Sleep hygiene is strongly related to sleep quality and modestly related to perceptions of daytime sleepiness.
  • Support of the sleep hygiene construct was also provided by strong correlations with the associated features of a diagnosis of inadequate sleep hygiene.

Authors suggest that clinically it is important to understand that sleep hygiene does not exist in isolation and may be better understood when considering the psychosocial context of the patient (e.g., precipitation and/or maintenance of maladaptive sleep hygiene behaviors may not be addressed by education alone).

Attribution and References

Mastin DF, Bryson J, Corwyn R. Assessment of sleep hygiene using the Sleep Hygiene Index. J Behav Med. 2006 Jun;29(3):223-7. doi: 10.1007/s10865-006-9047-6. Epub 2006 Mar 24. PMID: 16557353.