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Pandemic Grief Risk Factors

Pandemic Grief Risk Factors

What is PGRF

The Pandemic Grief Risk Factors (PGRF) is a self-report inventory or screening tool of distinctive risk factors associated with grief in the context of a COVID-19 loss. Because losing someone to COVID-19 has its own set of unique challenges, the PGRF was developed to help clinicians and researchers identify these factors. Individually and collectively, these risk factors are strongly associated with dysfunctional grief symptoms and functional impairments.

PGRF Printable PDF

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PGRF Scoring and Interpretation

PsyPack can automatically score the PGRF assessment and prepare corresponding tables and graphs.



What does PGRF measure

The purpose of the evaluation is to:

  • identify risk factors associated with grief in the context of a COVID-19 loss.



Type of outcome tool


Assessment modes


Age and eligibility

18 years and above

Estimated time

Less than 5 minutes


Since the questionnaire relies on client self-report, all responses should be verified by the clinician, and a definitive diagnosis is made on clinical grounds taking into account how well the client understood the questionnaire, as well as other relevant information from the client.

Psychometric properties and interpretation:

The PGRF was developed on a large sample of adults (N = 831) who lost a significant person to COVID-19. The PGRF is a reliable instrument (α = .88), with solid factorial (single-factor) and construct validity (correlates with measures of dysfunctional pandemic-related grief symptoms and functional impairment). Each item of the PGRF is rated on a 4-point scale, from 0 (not at all) to 3 (nearly every day), based on experiences over the past two weeks. Elevated scores on a particular item or a high total scale score indicate problematic symptoms or struggles for the individual that could warrant further assessment and/or treatment. Clinical judgement should guide the interpretation of the PGRF results. vs Score)

Attribution and References

Neimeyer, R. A., & Lee, S. A. (2021). Circumstances of the death and associated risk factors for severity and impairment of COVID-19 grief. Death Studies, in press.