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Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire

Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire

What is MEQ

The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) is a 19 items scale developed to assess morningness-eveningness – the degree to which respondents are active and alert at certain times of day. Scale items query preferences in sleep and waking times, and subjective “peak” times at which respondents feel their best.

MEQ Printable PDF

You can create a free account on PsyPack to access fillable PDFs, manuals and educational resources for the MEQ

MEQ Scoring and Interpretation

The questionnaire asks 19 questions, selected to assess morningness-eveningness. Most of the answers are forced choice, with no 'do not know/cannot decide' category. Four choices of answer are given, indicating: definite morning type, moderate morning type, moderate evening type, and definite evening type. A time scale is employed for a few questions. Each question is given a loading factor determined from item analysis. The scores are added and the sum converted into a five point morningness-eveningness scale: definitely morning type (70–86), moderately morning type (59–69), neither type (42–58), moderately evening type (31–41), and definitely evening type (16–30).

Five point morningness-eveningness scale

Table 4
ScoreType

70-86

Definitely morning type

59-69

Moderately morning type

42-58

Neither type

31-41

Moderately evening type

16-30

Definitely evening type

PsyPack can automatically score the MEQ assessment and prepare corresponding tables and graphs.

MEQ sample result

Further, PsyPack automatically plots a graph to help you easily track progress over time.

MEQ track progress

Sample Report of MEQ

Domain

Morningness-Eveningness, Sleep

What does MEQ measure

The purpose of the evaluation is to:

  • assess morningness-eveningness.

Administration

Self-administered

Type of outcome tool

Positive psychology

Assessment modes

Questionnaire

Age and eligibility

Youths 18 years and older

Estimated time

About 10 minutes

Notes

As is true of any self-report instrument, respondents can consciously distort their response to the scale if they are motivated to do so.

The scale may need to be adapted to the specific region in which it is being used to accommodate variations in circadian rhythms.

The scale is composed of both Likert- type and time-scale questions. For the time-scale questions, discrete item choices, closest to the time period, have been substituted for continuous graphic scales in this impementation of the MEQ.

Attribution and References

Horne JA, Ostberg O. A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. Int J Chronobiol. 1976;4(2):97-110. PMID: 1027738.